Is changing gender legal in India and how to change it in documents legally?


Is changing gender legal in India and how to change it in documents legally?

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Is changing gender legal in India and how to change it in documents legally?

In recent years, India has witnessed significant progress in recognizing and safeguarding the rights of its transgender and gender-diverse communities. One crucial aspect of this journey is the legal recognition of gender identity. While the country has taken important steps towards acknowledging gender diversity, it is essential to understand the legal processes involved in changing gender in official documents. This article aims to explore the current state of legal gender recognition in India and provide a comprehensive guide on how individuals can change their gender identity in official records.

Legal Framework for Gender Recognition in India

There are various name change reasons in India and India’s legal framework for gender recognition has undergone several positive developments. In April 2014, the Supreme Court of India passed a landmark judgement in the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) v. Union of India case. This judgement recognized transgender individuals as a “third gender” and affirmed their constitutional rights to equality and non-discrimination. It marked a significant step forward in acknowledging gender diversity in the country.

Recognizing Self-Identified Gender

According to the NALSA judgement, individuals have the right to self-identify their gender. This means that people can choose to identify themselves as male, female, or as a third gender, irrespective of the gender assigned at birth. This recognition is not contingent upon medical interventions or surgeries and respects the autonomy of the individual’s gender identity.

Changing Gender on Educational Certificates

To change the gender on educational certificates, individuals can follow these steps:


  • Obtain a Sworn Affidavit: Visit a notary public and provide a sworn affidavit declaring the intention to change the gender on educational certificates. This affidavit should mention the individual’s original gender, the desired gender, and the reason for the change.
  • Newspaper Advertisement: Publish a notice in two local newspapers – one in English and the other in the regional language – declaring the gender change in India and the reasons behind it.
  • Gazette Notification: Apply for a change of name and gender in the Official Gazette of the respective state or union territory. Submit the affidavit and newspaper clippings along with the application.
  • Update Educational Certificates: After receiving the gazette notification, approach the relevant educational institutions or boards with the new name and gender details. Request them to update the educational certificates accordingly.
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Changing Gender on Government-issued Identity Documents

Changing gender on government-issued identity documents like passports, voter ID cards, and Aadhaar requires a specific process. Here’s how individuals can do it:


  • Affidavit: As with educational certificates, start by obtaining a sworn affidavit stating the desire to change gender on official documents.
  • Application Form: Obtain the respective application form for gender change from the relevant issuing authority’s website.
  • Supporting Documents: Gather necessary documents such as the affidavit, newspaper clippings, medical certificate (if required), passport-size photographs, and the existing identity document.
  • Submit the Application: Submit the application form along with the supporting documents to the respective issuing authority.
  • Verification Process: The issuing authority may conduct a verification process to authenticate the request.
  • Updated Document: Once the application is approved, the issuing authority will provide a new identity document reflecting the updated gender.

Gender Reassignment Surgery (GRS)

It is essential to note that gender reassignment surgery (GRS) is not a mandatory requirement for changing gender in official documents. The NALSA judgement explicitly recognizes the right to self-identify without any medical prerequisites. However, some individuals may choose to undergo GRS for personal reasons, and if so, they can submit a medical certificate from a registered medical practitioner along with their application for gender change.


In India, legal recognition of gender identity has come a long way, especially with the landmark NALSA judgement affirming the rights of transgender individuals. While the country has made significant progress, it is crucial to raise awareness about the processes involved in legally changing gender in official documents. Self-identification is a fundamental right, and individuals should be able to express their gender identity without fear or discrimination. By following the appropriate legal procedures, individuals can ensure that their identity is recognized and respected in all spheres of life.

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