Optional Political Science Curriculum


Optional Political Science Curriculum

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A thorough comprehension of the curriculum is critical for successful preparation, allowing applicants to arrange their have a look at schedules correctly. This web page seeks to give an intensive rationalization of the non-compulsory curriculum for political science, dissecting its factors and advising on how to put them together. The attraction of the topic is due to its applicability to politics, governance, and present-day events. Here, we are talking about the Optional Political Science Curriculum.

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We are discussing the Optional Political Science Curriculum:

Section 1: Political Science Optional Syllabus Overview

Each paper gives a complete grasp of the problem by masking exclusive but related political and technological know-how areas.

There are two papers in the Political Science optional syllabus: Paper I and Paper II. 

  • Paper I is dedicated to Indian politics and political ideas.
  • Paper II explores worldwide family members and comparative politics.

Section 2: Comprehensive Paper I Syllabus

Indian Politics and Political Theory

1. Political Theory: Overview, Range, and Importance

Introduction: It analyzes concepts like democracy, power, authority, fairness, and freedom. Examining political structures’ guiding beliefs, ideals, and precepts is called political ideas. 

2. Indian Political Thought

Modern: Political theories of figures like Jawaharlal Nehru, B.R. Ambedkar, and Mahatma Gandhi that tackle social justice, colonialism, and current kingdom-constructing.

Medieval: Thinkers consisting of Kabir, who emphasized social justice, and leaders of the Bhakti movement, who endorsed devotional activities and contributed.

3. Critical Ideas and Concept

Socialism: Among the fantastic intellectuals are Friedrich Engels, Rosa Luxemburg, and Karl Marx. Places a sturdy emphasis on the welfare of the country, public useful resource possession, and social equality. 

4. Critical Political Thinkers

Kautilya: Writer of the ebook Arthashastra, which covers economics, army approaches, and statecraft. Kautilya’s realpolitik angle and useful governance steering make his paintings noteworthy. 

Mahatma Gandhi: Advocate of reality (satya), self-rule (swaraj), and nonviolence (ahimsa). Global peace corporations continued attracting inspiration from Gandhi’s ideals, which impacted India’s independence effort.

Politics and Government in India

1. Key Elements of the Indian Constitution

Preamble: The Preamble, in brief, summarizes the goals of the Constitution, which include equality, justice, liberty, and brotherhood.

Directive Principles of State Policy: Part IV includes hints on how the kingdom needs to improve social and monetary welfare.

2. Organization and Operation of the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial

Executive: The Prime Minister leads the government, and the President leads the kingdom. The Prime Minister also leads the Council of Ministers, which carries out criminal hints and pointers.

3. Basic Rights and Responsibilities

Basic Rights: Equality (Articles 14–18)

Freedom of Expression (Articles 19–22)

4. The Indian Constitution’s Evolution and Historical Background

The Republic of India came to be based mostly on January 26, 1950, at an equal time because the Constitution emerged as ratified. The Constituent Assembly held prolonged discussions throughout the drafting of the Constitution, with historic occurrences similar to the Indian Independence motion and the Government of India Acts having an impact.

5. Federalism in India: Problems and Prospects

Federal Structure: The Seventh Schedule (Union List, State List, and Concurrent List) describes the powers shared by using manner of the usage of the Union and State governments.

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6. The Function of Civil Services in Indian Democracy

Functions: Upholding law and order, administering administrative strategies, and enforcing hints.

Organization: The Indian Police Service (IPS), Indian Administrative Service (IAS), and similar national and federal offerings.

7. Electoral Procedure and Reforms

Election Commission: An independent business enterprise employer overseeing India’s electoral techniques.


  • Electronic vote-casting machines (EVMs) have been delivered.
  • Education and hobby campaigns for citizens.
  • Actions to save you from electoral fraud and guarantee openness

Section 3: Comprehensive Paper II Syllabus

International Relations and Comparative Politics

1. The Nature and Scope of Comparative Politics

Nature: Comparative politics is the systematic exam and contrast of political structures throughout the sector.

2. Regimes and Political Systems

Democratic Systems: Most traits include free and fair elections, the rule of regulation, and the protection of civil liberties. Maintaining the delicate balance between minority rights and majority rule, voter apathy, and political departments are a few of the demanding situations.

3. Types of Election Systems and Their Consequences

First-beyond-the-submit (FPTP): The winner is the candidate who receives the maximum votes. Usually in nations like India and the United Kingdom. Drawbacks include disproportionality; benefits encompass simplicity and obvious results.

Mixed Systems: These structures are found in Germany and New Zealand and include PR and FPTP additives. They strike a balance between stability and illustration.

4. International Relations: Essential Ideas and Theories

Realism: Places a sturdy emphasis on power politics, country-wide interest, and sovereignty. Kenneth Waltz and Hans Morgenthau are crucial proponents.

Liberalism: It specializes in democratization, worldwide agencies, and collaboration. Notable individuals include Robert and Immanuel Kant.

5. The United Nations (UN) is one of the five important global organizations.

Organization: International Court of Justice, Security Council, General Assembly, and other specialized businesses.

Purposes: Human rights advocacy, social and monetary boom, and worldwide peace and security upholding.

6. Regional Organizations:

European Union (EU):  Integration projects include political collaboration, a single market, and a common forex (Euro).

7. Modern International Concerns

Universal Declarations: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) mentions basic protections for human rights.

Genocide, ethnic cleansing, political persecution, and prejudice are examples of violations.

Changing Climate: Impacts encompass biodiversity loss, excessive climate occurrences, sea stage upward thrust, and worldwide warming.

International accords: weather summits, the Kyoto Protocol, and the Paris Agreement.

 Mitigation strategies include sustainable practices, carbon emission reduction, and renewable electricity.

Causes: Socioeconomic inequality, political and ideological extremism, and nonsecular fanaticism.

Responses: sharing of intelligence, global collaboration, and counterterrorism strategies.

8. To maintain strategic autonomy and keep away from aligning with predominant energy blocs all through the Cold War, India pursued a non-alignment policy under the Historical Context:

9. Key Bilateral Partnerships

  • Trade, funding, and cooperation in studies and eras are examples of financial links.
  • Trade disparities and divergent opinions on international affairs are challenges.


  • Strategic alliance in generation, defense, and counterterrorism.
  • Historical border conflicts and cutting-edge tensions along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) signify India-China relations. Trade relations are characterized by using both massive exchange volumes and alternate deficits.
  • Strategic rivalry and nearby sway within the Indo-Pacific area.
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  • Security concerns persist, as well as historical disputes, mainly the ones related to Kashmir.
  • Diplomatic discussions, tasks to foster confidence, and interpersonal interactions are all a part of peace efforts.


  • Strategic courting from the Cold War technology with historical links.
  • Defense cooperation, encompassing arms trading and mixed military drills.
  • Geopolitical significance in retaining equilibrium with different first-rate powers.
  • The present situation is characterized by sporadic disputes and attempts at settlement.

Section 4: Resources and Study Materials

1. Recommended Books and Author

Paper I:

  • “Indian Polity” (M. Laxmikanth): a thorough evaluation of the Indian political device, the charter, and the governance strategies.
  • O.P. Gauba’s “An Introduction to Political Theory” provides an in-depth dialogue on the ideas and philosophies of political theory.

Paper II:

  • Andrew Heywood’s “Global Politics” affords insights into political systems, global members of the family, and comparative politics.

2. Academic Journals and papers

  • Journal of Democracy: Scholarly investigations of political moves, comparative politics, and democratic authorities.
  • Economic and Political Weekly (EPW): Academic papers on Indian politics, financial system, and society.
  • Foreign Affairs: Views and insights on international politics and global affairs.

3. Online Resources PRS India:

  • Offers an examination of Indian laws and regulations.Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA): International family members, defense, and safety research.
  • Main guides: International publications, The Hindu, and The Indian Express are top resources for updates on modern activities.

4. Mock Tests and Previous Years’ Question Papers

  • Mock Tests: Practice composing responses, dealing with some time, and honing your presentation and articulation capabilities.
  • Previous Years’ Papers: Understanding the primary topics, question tendencies, and exam layout.

FAQs Regarding the Optional Political Science Curriculum

1. What subjects are covered in the non-compulsory Political Science syllabus for competitive examinations?

There are two papers within the non-compulsory Political Science syllabus:

First Paper: Political concepts and Indian politics are the primary topics of this essay. The standards and ideologies of political theory (liberalism, socialism, Marxism, feminism, and many others.); Indian political thought; terrific political figures (Kautilya, Mahatma Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar); the historical past and development of the Indian Constitution; fundamental rights and duties; the composition and operation of the legislature, government branch, and court docket; federalism in India; electoral methods and reforms; and the function of civil offerings in Indian democracy are most of the crucial topics included.

Paper II: International Relations and Comparative Politics are the topics of this thesis. The nature and extent of comparative politics; political regimes (democratic and authoritarian); electoral systems; worldwide members of the family theories (realism, liberalism, constructivism); massive global companies (UN, WTO, IMF, World Bank); nearby agencies (EU, ASEAN, SAARC); cutting-edge international problems (terrorism, weather trade, human rights); and India’s foreign coverage are some of the key topics covered.

2. How do I prepare for the elective Political Science course?

To be ready for the optionally available Political Science path, one needs to put in force the following techniques:

  • Organized Study Schedule: Create an intensive observation plan that allows time for each situation, consistent with its significance and difficulty. Make sure you have revision sessions regularly.
  • Note-making: Make brief notes highlighting the most vital factors from every subject matter. Update those notes regularly with new statistics and present-day occasions.
  • Answer Writing Practice: Write clean, coherent, and properly dependent answers. Get comments from peers and mentors to improve your articulation and presentation skills.
  • Study Materials: Consult academic journals, articles, and online sources for thorough coverage.
  • Mock Tests: Practice with query papers from previous years and take mock assessments to underline your writing.
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3. Which books are recommended for the optional Political Science direction

Suggested analysis for the non-obligatory in political, technological know-how is:

Paper I:

  • O.P. Gauba’s “An Introduction to Political Theory”
  • M. Laxmikanth’s “Indian Polity” and Subrata Mukherjee and Sushila Ramaswamy’s “A History of Political Thought: Plato to Marx”

Paper II:

  • Andrew Heywood’s “Global Politics” – Peu Ghosh’s “International Relations” – Muchkund Dubey’s “India’s Foreign Policy: Coping with the Changing World”
  • These books cover the path cloth thoroughly and are crucial for laying a stable political technological know-how foundation.

4. To what extent does knowledge of present-day affairs contribute to the Political Science non-obligatory?

  • Answer Writing: Improving the caliber of responses using pertinent case studies and examples from contemporary affairs.
  • Understanding current activities is critical for the Political Science non-compulsory, particularly for Paper II, which covers International Relations and Comparative Politics. Keeping up with modern affairs is beneficial for:
  • Dynamic Sections: Connecting political frameworks and theoretical ideas to current activities in global politics.
  • Writing Tasks involve comprehensive analyses of present-day events and proving one’s knowledge of how they affect political dynamics.
  • To stay informed, regularly follow policy briefs, scholarly courses, and dependable news resources.

5. What are the primary differences between the General Studies papers in aggressive checks and the non-obligatory Political Science syllabus?

The following are the primary distinctions between the General Studies (GS) papers and the non-compulsory Political Science syllabus:

  • Completeness of Coverage: Compared to the broader and more complete protection in GS papers, the Political Science elective syllabus requires a deeper and more specialized understanding of political thoughts, ideologies, and structures.
  • Key Subjects: The non-compulsory curriculum protects topics not thoroughly protected within the GS papers, including political concepts, Indian political philosophy, and theories of worldwide relations.
  • Methodological Approach: While the GS papers focus more on current occasions and authentic know-how, the non-obligatory concern emphasizes vital evaluation, theoretical viewpoints, and philosophical foundations of political systems.
  • Method of Preparation: To prepare for the Political Science non-compulsory, one must thoroughly overview specialist sources, take notes, and practice answering questions regularly.


The optionally available syllabus for political technology presents an intensive expertise of political theories, systems, and international dynamics. Aspirants can attain achievement on this topic with regular exercise, efficient time management, and a well-based look at approach. A comprehensive knowledge of political science broadens one’s viewpoint on global politics and governance and supports one’s performance on competitive tests.

If you approach this situation with enthusiasm and commitment, it will undoubtedly pay off in your academic and professional endeavors.

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